IES 2020 Virtual Research Symposium

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How do you balance the push for energy codes that require reduced lighting power densities and automatic lighting controls with a holistic view of the purpose of the lighting? Lighting that addresses a comprehensive approach to satisfying human visual and non-visual needs must consider lighting quality concerns such as glare, color quality, flicker, luminance ratios, spatial distribution of light, and others.

Research that documents how these lighting quality issues affect measurable human responses such as productivity, performance, comfort, satisfaction, and overall well-being in a variety of lighting applications continues to emerge. More efforts are needed to inform future design directions and to serve as an important constraint when defining lighting goals.

This virtual symposium consolidated the current evidence related to these topics and current metrics, and will define future research priorities. There are four sessions in this conference, each are worth 2 CEUs when watched in their entirety. Sessions are not available for individual purchase. 

SESSION 1: VISION
  • Discomfort Glare: A Human Visual System model Malgorzata Perz & Gilles Vissenberg
    • We will (briefly) review the current glare measures, revealing some of their shortcomings. Then, I’ll present the recent developments on the integrated discomfort glare measure based on the human visual system
  • Lighting versus comfort Arnold Wilkins
    • The human visual system evolved to process images from nature efficiently. These images have little rapid modulation in light level. The lighting chromaticity is close to the Planckian l focus. The Fourier amplitude is proportional to wavelength, i.e. to the reciprocal of spatial frequency. The color contrast is modest. I will consider how electric lighting is un-natural in all four respects and how it causes discomfort and cortical hyper-metabolism as a direct result. There are large individual differences in the perception of the rapid modulation of light but Individuals who experience visual stress can see temporal light artifact from flicker at frequencies up to 11kHz. Although healthy individuals find lighting comfortable when it has a chromaticity close to the Planckian locus, those who experience migraine with aura choose as comfortable strongly saturated colors of lighting, mostly well away from the Planckian locus. The spatial arrangement of ceiling luminaires is often such as to create an uncomfortable repetitive pattern of bright light sources. The properties of uncomfortable patterns are well described, and it is possible to use computer algorithms to avoid such uncomfortable arrangements.
  • Making lighting research more credible Jim Uttley
    • A range of scientific disciplines are currently undergoing a 'reproducibility crisis', which questions the credibility of much previous research. This talk will highlight some of the issues raised by the reproducibility crisis and their relevance to lighting research, and discuss opportunities for improving our research practices to ensure we gather and report meaningful and credible data.
SESSION 2: LIGHTING FOR BIOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR
  • Human Biological Inputs Naomi Miller
    • Gauging environments for biological effects: How do we measure and report light exposure? The lighting research and practice communities are still wrestling with how to evaluate spaces for biological effect. What tools should we use to measure and communicate the light spectrum, duration, and dose? How are those translated into a daily light exposure, and what metrics are appropriate? This talk will introduce the melanopic EDI and melanopic DER metrics proposed by the CIE.
  • Lighting Regulation of Human Circadian Dr. George Brainard
    • Signals transmitted from the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) reach numerous nuclei and regions in the brain, ultimately having an impact on the peripheral physiology of the body. Accurate measurement of biological and behavioral characteristics such as circadian phase, sleep duration, melatonin secretion, alertness, and numerous other physiological responses is important to understanding how light ultimately impacts human health. This talk will introduce strengths and limitations of some of these biological and behavioral measures in laboratory and field studies.
  • What does Light Quality mean to a Neuroscientist? Doug Steel 
    • Neuroscience and Engineering share a common problem when it comes to characterizing Light Quality; while mathematics allows quantification of tangible properties, the field quickly becomes "squishy" and intangible because of hidden, unknown, or emergent properties. Thus we are left saying "I don't know how to measure it, but I know it when I see it." In this talk we will explore how Systems Neuroscience is bringing understanding to the properties of light that shape our experiences in health and disease.
  • Evaluating Sleep and Behavior Connie Samla
    • Over the past five years SMUD has worked on several lighting projects focusing on sleep and behaviors but utilizing different methods of evaluation. Each successful project had commonalities such as administrative and technical champions, participant education as well as staff dedication. Focusing on sleep for seniors demonstrated positive outcomes with fewer nighttime sleep disturbances while children with autism had noticeable improvements in sleep, behaviors and transitions.
SESSION 3: SPECIAL STUDIES
  • The economics of biophilia Bill Browning
    • Bill will discuss physiological and economic implications of improved indoor lighting. He will also introduce a recent study exploring the effect of biophilic design interventions on student stress and academic success, and will explain how the study's structure can inform future lighting research. Lastly, Bill will show a few case studies illustrating how designers are using scientific insights to improve the indoor experience.
  • Measuring Impact Ron Gibbons
    • This talk will highlight methods and approaches to measuring the impact of lighting in the exterior environment. How light impacts drivers and pedestrians, and some of the new approaches to consider in lighting design with the advent of solid state lighting, will be discussed.
  • Specifying light source color rendition Tony Esposito
    • This session will describe the current state of lighting metrics for the specification of light source color rendition with particular focus on the description, computation, application, and translation of IES TM-30 metrics and TM-30 ANNEX E color rendition specification categories. The session will close with a look into the future of color science research, with specific emphasis on metrics and aspects of color rendition not covered within the IES TM-30 framework.
  • Evidence-Based Interactions between Indoor Environmental Factors and Their Effects Clarence Waters and Michael Kuhlenengel
    • We will speak about a recently completed project entitled “Evidence-Based Interactions between Indoor Environmental Factors and Their Effects on K-12 Student Achievement”. The study, funded by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), measured lighting (both daylight and electric), acoustical, thermal, and indoor air quality characteristics of 220 classrooms in five school districts and compared them to student performance on standardized tests.
SESSION 4: PAPER SESSION
  1. Progress in Multi-measure MDS for Lighting Research, Design, and Education Hugo Blasdel
  2. Colour: The Immeasurable Aspect Of Reflected White Light Mashaaraa Bhatia
  3. Lighting Metrics for Interiors Kevin Leadford
  4. Isolating Light Transfer Paths among Surfaces to Identify the Effect on Skin Tone Evaluation in a NICU Environment Lisa Lyon and Riley Johnson
  5. Apparatus for Studying Human Perception of Luminance Uniformity Benjamin Feagin
  6. Exploring a path-based lighting intervention on older adults’ movement behaviors in a patterned carpet of a senior living community Xiaojie Lu
  7. Challenging Conventional Wisdom: New Efforts to Create People-centric Approaches in Codes and Standards Meg Smith
  8. Recommended Lighting Design Strategies For Healthier Office Environments Thomas Patterson

 

  • SESSION 4: POSTER SESSION

    Contains 2 Component(s), Includes Credits Recorded On: 05/22/2020

    Session 4: Poster Session includes the presentation of eight different research papers.

    SESSION 4: PAPER SESSION
    1. Progress in Multi-measure MDS for Lighting Research, Design, and Education Hugo Blasdel
    2. Colour: The Immeasurable Aspect Of Reflected White Light Mashaaraa Bhatia
    3. Lighting Metrics for Interiors Kevin Leadford
    4. Isolating Light Transfer Paths among Surfaces to Identify the Effect on Skin Tone Evaluation in a NICU Environment Lisa Lyon and Riley Johnson
    5. Apparatus for Studying Human Perception of Luminance Uniformity Benjamin Feagin
    6. Exploring a path-based lighting intervention on older adults’ movement behaviors in a patterned carpet of a senior living community Xiaojie Lu
    7. Challenging Conventional Wisdom: New Efforts to Create People-centric Approaches in Codes and Standards Meg Smith
    8. Recommended Lighting Design Strategies For Healthier Office Environments Thomas Patterson

    00:00 Introductions
    02:02 Progress in Multi-measure MDS for Lighting Research, Design and Education presented by Hugo Blasdel
    24:32 Colour: The Immeasurable Aspect of Reflect White Light presented by Mashaaraa Bhatia
    33:07 Lighting Metrics for Interiors presented by Kevin Leadford
    45:04 Isolating Lighting Transfer Paths among Surfaces to Identify the Effect on Skin Tone Evaluation in a NICU Environment presented by Lisa Lyon and Riley Johnson
    53:38 Apparatus for Studying Human Perception of Luminance Uniformity presented by Benjamin Feagin
    1:06:04 Exploring a path-based lighting intervention on older adults' movement behaviors in a patterned carpet of senior living community presented by Xiaojie Lu
    1:16:20 Challenging Conventional Wisdom: New Efforts to Create People-centric Approaches in Codes and Standards presented by Meg Smith
    1:27:34 Recommended Lighting Design Strategies For Healthier Office Environments presented by Thomas Patterson

  • SESSION 3: SPECIAL STUDIES

    Contains 2 Component(s), Includes Credits Recorded On: 05/19/2020

    Session 3: Special Studies includes four presentations; "NATURE INSIDE: Productivity, BIOPHILIA, & Lighting" presented by Bill Browning, "Measuring Impact" presented by Rob Gibbons, "Specifying light source color rendition" presented by Tony Esposito, and "Evidence-Based Interactions between Indoor Environmental Factors and Their Effects" presented by Dr. Clarence Waters and Michael Kuhlenengel.

    SESSION 3: SPECIAL STUDIES
    • NATURE INSIDE: Productivity, BIOPHILIA, & Lighting Bill Browning
      • Bill will discuss physiological and economic implications of improved indoor lighting. He will also introduce a recent study exploring the effect of biophilic design interventions on student stress and academic success, and will explain how the study's structure can inform future lighting research. Lastly, Bill will show a few case studies illustrating how designers are using scientific insights to improve the indoor experience.
    • Measuring Impact Ron Gibbons
      • This talk will highlight methods and approaches to measuring the impact of lighting in the exterior environment. How light impacts drivers and pedestrians, and some of the new approaches to consider in lighting design with the advent of solid state lighting, will be discussed.
    • Specifying light source color rendition Tony Esposito
      • This session will describe the current state of lighting metrics for the specification of light source color rendition with particular focus on the description, computation, application, and translation of IES TM-30 metrics and TM-30 ANNEX E color rendition specification categories. The session will close with a look into the future of color science research, with specific emphasis on metrics and aspects of color rendition not covered within the IES TM-30 framework.
    • Evidence-Based Interactions between Indoor Environmental Factors and Their Effects Clarence Waters and Michael Kuhlenengel
      • We will speak about a recently completed project entitled “Evidence-Based Interactions between Indoor Environmental Factors and Their Effects on K-12 Student Achievement”. The study, funded by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), measured lighting (both daylight and electric), acoustical, thermal, and indoor air quality characteristics of 220 classrooms in five school districts and compared them to student performance on standardized tests.

    00:00 Introductions
    03:18 NATURE INSIDE: Productivity, BIOPHILIA, & Lighting presented by Bill Browning
    27:15 Measuring Impact presented by Ron Gibbons
    55:26 Specifying light source color rendition presented by Tony Esposito
    1:41:00 Evidence-Based Interactions between Indoor Environmental Factors and Their Effects on K-12 Student Achievement presented by Michael Kuhlenengel and Clarence Waters
    2:14:28 Q & A with all presenters 

    Bill Browning

    Bill Browning is one of the green building and real estate industry’s foremost thinkers and strategists, and an advocate for sustainable design solutions at all levels of business, government, and civil society. His expertise has been sought out by organizations as diverse as Fortune 500 companies, leading universities, non-profit organizations, the US military, and foreign governments. He is passionate about the interactions between the built and natural environment, and how that supports health and wellbeing. In 2006, Mr. Browning founded a new firm, Terrapin Bright Green, to craft high-performance environmental strategies for corporations, governments, and large-scale real estate developments.

    Ron Gibbons

    Ron Gibbons is the Director of the Center for Infrastructure Based Safety Systems (CIBSS) at the Virginia Tech Transportation Institute (VTTI). He is the Institute’s lead lighting research scientist. He is currently the PI on projects investigating the impact of outdoor lighting on human health, the Spectral Effects of new light sources on roadways, the visibility of police vehicles and is the subject matter lead for the FHWA office Safety IDIQ contract. Dr. Gibbons is also an Associate Professor in the School of Architecture and Design at Virginia Tech. Gibbons is the author of over 80 published papers on roadway lighting, photometry, and target visibility. He is a past Director of Division 4 of the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) and a past president of the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America.

    Tony Esposito, PhD

    Tony Esposito holds a doctorate in Architectural Engineering from Penn State University with a minor in statistics. His specialties include color science, color discrimination, human factors research methods, circadian metrics, and spectral modeling and optimization. His primary research goal is to develop an accurate and intuitive color discrimination metric for applied lighting.

    Tony is a former graduate education fellow to the National Science Foundation, has won the Robert J. Besal Scholarship four times, is a recipient of the 2019 Richard Kelly Grant, and is a recipient of the 2019 Walsh Weston Award from The Society of Light and Lighting for the best fundamental lighting research paper published in Lighting Research and Technology. He currently serves as a voting member of the IES Color Committee, formerly lead the task group that developed IES TM-30 ANNEX E and F (recommended specification criteria using IES TM-30), and is the Founder and Head Research Scientist of Lighting Research Solutions LLC.

    Dr. Clarence Waters

    Dr. Clarence Waters is the Aaron Douglas Professor of Architectural Engineering (AE) in the Durham School of Architectural Engineering and Construction at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. Dr. Waters has a Ph.D. in AE from Pennsylvania State University (1993). His B. S. (1978) and M.S. degrees (1988) are in AE from Kansas State University. Dr. Waters has been on the faculty of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln since 2000. Dr. Waters served on the faculty of Kansas State University in AE from 1986 to 2000. He was the head of the Department of Architectural Engineering and Construction Science at KSU for four years. He served as a Research Associate at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Golden, Colorado, (2011 - 2012). Prior to his academic career, Dr. Waters served for over seven years as an electrical project engineer for Professional Engineering Consultants in Wichita, Kansas.

    Michael Kuhlenengel

    Michael Kuhlenengel is a fourth year PhD student at the University of Nebraska - Lincoln in Architectural Engineering. He has spent the last five years working on a EPA funded research grant titled School Environmental Effects on Student Achievement. The EPA project studies the lighting, mechanical, and acoustics of classrooms on student achievement. His primary focus for the EPA project has been on lighting and statistical analysis. Michael has presented parts of this research at the 2016 IES conference, 2017 AEI conference, and the 2019 CISBAT conference. He is currently working to finish his PhD and journal articles for the EPA project.

  • SESSION 2: LIGHTING FOR BIOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR

    Contains 2 Component(s), Includes Credits Recorded On: 05/15/2020

    Session 2: Lighting for Biology and Behavior includes four presentations; "Human Biological Inputs" presented by Naomi Miller, "Lighting Regulation of Human Circadian, Neuroendocrine and Neurobehavioral Response" presented by Dr. George C. Brainard, "What does Light Quality mean to a Neuroscientist?" presented by Doug Steel, and finally "Evaluating Sleep and Behavior in Seniors and Children" presented by Connie Samla.

    SESSION 2: LIGHTING FOR BIOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR
    • Human Biological Inputs Naomi Miller
      • Gauging environments for biological effects: How do we measure and report light exposure? The lighting research and practice communities are still wrestling with how to evaluate spaces for biological effect. What tools should we use to measure and communicate the light spectrum, duration, and dose? How are those translated into a daily light exposure, and what metrics are appropriate? This talk will introduce the melanopic EDI and melanopic DER metrics proposed by the CIE.
    • Lighting Regulation of Human Circadian Dr. George Brainard
      • Signals transmitted from the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) reach numerous nuclei and regions in the brain, ultimately having an impact on the peripheral physiology of the body. Accurate measurement of biological and behavioral characteristics such as circadian phase, sleep duration, melatonin secretion, alertness, and numerous other physiological responses is important to understanding how light ultimately impacts human health. This talk will introduce strengths and limitations of some of these biological and behavioral measures in laboratory and field studies.
    • What does Light Quality mean to a Neuroscientist? Doug Steel 
      • Neuroscience and Engineering share a common problem when it comes to characterizing Light Quality; while mathematics allows quantification of tangible properties, the field quickly becomes "squishy" and intangible because of hidden, unknown, or emergent properties. Thus we are left saying "I don't know how to measure it, but I know it when I see it." In this talk we will explore how Systems Neuroscience is bringing understanding to the properties of light that shape our experiences in health and disease.
    • Evaluating Sleep and Behavior Connie Samla
      • Over the past five years SMUD has worked on several lighting projects focusing on sleep and behaviors but utilizing different methods of evaluation. Each successful project had commonalities such as administrative and technical champions, participant education as well as staff dedication. Focusing on sleep for seniors demonstrated positive outcomes with fewer nighttime sleep disturbances while children with autism had noticeable improvements in sleep, behaviors and transitions.

    00:00 Introductions
    04:05 Discomfort Glare: A Human Visual System model presented by Gilles Vissenberg 
    23:50 Lighting versus comfort presented by Arnold Wilkins
    48:52 Making lighting research more credible presented by Jim Uttley
    1:21:16 Q & A with all presenters 

    Naomi Miller

    Senior Lighting Engineer

    Ms. Naomi Miller is a designer/scientist in the solid-state lighting program at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in Portland OR. Working to bridge the gap between technology and application, Miller promotes the wise use of LEDs, and works with industry to overcome the hurdles where LEDs are not ready for prime time. Miller has received over 30 architectural lighting design awards for projects ranging from churches to university science buildings, boutique hotels, supermarkets, and parking lots. She chaired the IES Quality of the Visual Environment committee for 8 years and was a principal member of the writing team for Light + Design: A Guide to Designing Quality Lighting for People and Buildings (DG-18-08). She is a Fellow of the IES and Fellow of the IALD.

    George C. Brainard

    George C. Brainard has directed Jefferson's Light Research Program since 1984. This program's research studies the effects of light on neuroendocrine physiology and circadian regulation in humans. Using the techniques of photobiology, radioimmunoassay, and performance testing, this group has documented how various visible and nonvisible light sources influence both hormonal balance and behavior. Current studies include elucidating the action spectrum of melatonin regulation, investigating the phase shifting capacities of light, studying the influence of light on tumor progression, and testing new light treatment devices for winter depression.

    Douglas Steel, PhD

    Douglas Steel, PhD is the Founder of NeuroSense (www.neuro-sense.com). A Translational Scientist, for the past several years he has been working on the development of applications of spectrally-tunable LED arrays as an alternative to prescription drugs for the treatment of neurological and psychiatric conditions.

    He is also a serial entrepreneur, having founded or co-founded and managed 6 technology start-up companies over the past 17 years in a number of life science areas. For several years he was an Entrepreneur-in-Residence at the University of Utah.

    Doug has over 30 years of experience in pharmaceutical drug design and discovery, and research project management and implementation divided between academia and the pharmaceutical industry. He has received training in medical sciences and neuroscience, basic and applied biotechnology, integrative neuroscience, and brain-environment interactions. He is the author of over 20 publications in scientific journals and books in the areas of drug design, drug discovery, and marine biochemistry. He has also written over 30 technology articles in the popular press.

    Doug holds an M.Phil. and PhD in Biomedical Sciences from Columbia University, an MS (Psychobiology, Univ. of Florida), and a BA (Biology/Chemistry, Kalamazoo College). He also held pharmaceutical research positions at The Upjohn Company, CIBA-Geigy, and Syntex Pharmaceuticals.

    Doug is a member of the Science Advisory Panel of the IES (Illuminating Engineering Society), and also serves on the Science Advisory Boards of the Midwest Lighting Institute and the LESA Center at RPI (Lighting Enabled Systems and Applications).

    Connie Samla

    Connie Samla is SMUD’s Lighting Specialist who is a resource in lighting design for commercial, residential, and industrial customers with over twenty-five years of experience. At SMUD, Connie teaches and coordinates workshops, works on R&D projects and has taught lighting design classes at California State University Sacramento. Connie has a Bachelor of Science in Architectural Engineering from the University of Kansas, a Bachelor of Arts in Ministerial Studies, is a registered electrical engineer, past president of the local IES section, and is lighting certified.

  • SESSION 1: VISION

    Contains 2 Component(s), Includes Credits Recorded On: 05/12/2020

    Session 1: Vision includes three presentations; "Discomfort Glare: A Human Visual System model" presented by Małgorzata Perz and Gilles Vissenberg, "Lighting versus comfort" presented by Arnold Wilkins and "Making lighting research more credible" presented by Jim Uttley. Please refer to the "Overview" tab for more details.

    SESSION 1: VISION
    • Discomfort Glare: A Human Visual System model Malgorzata Perz & Gilles Vissenberg
      • We will (briefly) review the current glare measures, revealing some of their shortcomings. Then, I’ll present the recent developments on the integrated discomfort glare measure based on the human visual system
    • Lighting versus comfort Arnold Wilkins
      • The human visual system evolved to process images from nature efficiently. These images have little rapid modulation in light level. The lighting chromaticity is close to the Planckian l focus. The Fourier amplitude is proportional to wavelength, i.e. to the reciprocal of spatial frequency. The color contrast is modest. I will consider how electric lighting is un-natural in all four respects and how it causes discomfort and cortical hyper-metabolism as a direct result. There are large individual differences in the perception of the rapid modulation of light but Individuals who experience visual stress can see temporal light artifact from flicker at frequencies up to 11kHz. Although healthy individuals find lighting comfortable when it has a chromaticity close to the Planckian locus, those who experience migraine with aura choose as comfortable strongly saturated colors of lighting, mostly well away from the Planckian locus. The spatial arrangement of ceiling luminaires is often such as to create an uncomfortable repetitive pattern of bright light sources. The properties of uncomfortable patterns are well described, and it is possible to use computer algorithms to avoid such uncomfortable arrangements.
    • Making lighting research more credible Jim Uttley
      • A range of scientific disciplines are currently undergoing a 'reproducibility crisis', which questions the credibility of much previous research. This talk will highlight some of the issues raised by the reproducibility crisis and their relevance to lighting research, and discuss opportunities for improving our research practices to ensure we gather and report meaningful and credible data.

    00:00 Introductions
    04:05 Discomfort Glare: A Human Visual System model presented by Gilles Vissenberg 
    23:50 Lighting versus comfort presented by Arnold Wilkins
    48:52 Making lighting research more credible presented by Jim Uttley
    1:21:16 Q & A with all presenters 

    Gilles Vissenberg

    Gilles Vissenberg (born 1972, St. Maarten, Dutch West Indies) is principal scientist lighting applications at Signify Research, Eindhoven, The Netherlands. His current and previous work interests are optical design of LED lamps and luminaires, lighting application research, office lighting, energy saving and quality of light. He worked on LED spot lights and general illumination LED lighting systems, with a focus on low-glare solutions. He Dutch voting member of CIE division 3 (interior environment and lighting design) and was involved in the recent correction to the unified glare rating (CIE 232: 2019). He holds a Ph.D. from Leiden University, the Netherlands, and a Master degree in Theoretical Physics from the University of Nijmegen, the Netherlands. He published over 30 scientific papers and filed over 170 independent patent applications (88 patents are granted in the USA), mainly on illumination optics and LED lighting applications.

    Malgorzata Perz

    Małgorzata Perz was born in Poland in 1984. She goes by Gosia. She completed her secondary education at the Sports Championship High School in Szklarska Poręba, where she practiced biathlon. She studied Information and Communication Management at Neisse University and received her BS diploma in 2006. She continued her education at Wrocław University of Technology and in 2007 she earned Inzynier (Ir) degree in Computer Science and Management. Meanwhile, from 2006 to the end of 2007 she worked at Capgemini (PL), holding position of an Incident, Problem & Change Manager. In 2008, she moved to The Netherlands where she enrolled at Eindhoven University of Technology and followed Human-Technology Interaction program. In 2010 she received her MSc degree, following her diploma internship at Philips Research Europe. After graduation she worked at Philips Research and since 2016 she works at Signify Research, holding position of Scientist Optics Light & Vision. In her work she mainly focuses on studying different aspects of quality of light, including temporal, e.g. flicker, and the stroboscopic effect, spatial, e.g. glare and sparkle, and spectral, e.g. whiteness. From 2014 to 2019 she conducted research at TU/e Intelligent Lighting Institute, resulting in a thesis entitled Modelling Visibility of Temporal Light Artefacts for which she was awarded her PhD cum laude.

    Arnold Wilkins

    Arnold Wilkins is a Fellow of the British Psychological Society and an Honorary Fellow of the College of Optometrists. His postdoctoral study was undertaken at the Montreal Neurological Institute where he became interested in photosensitive epilepsy. He then spent 22 years at the Medical Research Council Applied Psychology Unit in Cambridge studying light sensitivity as it occurs not only in epilepsy, but migraine and dyslexia.  In 1997 he moved to a chair at the University of Essex, where he is now Emeritus. He has published extensively on visual stress and authored three books.

    Jim Uttley

    Jim Uttley has a background in Psychology and Behavioural Science. His research applies principles of behavioural research and environmental psychology to the built environment. One of his main interests is the influence of the built environment, particularly lighting, on active travel.